Part of Norfolk State University's Center of Excellence in Cybersecurity and in collaboration with the Air Force Research Lab, this project focused on exploring the applications of simulation models to cybersecurity in areas such as social cybersecurity.
MOST RECENT PUBLICATIONS
A GAME-TRANSFORMATION-BASED FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND INITIAL CONDITIONS AND OUTCOMES IN THE CONTEXT OF CYBER-ENABLED INFLUENCE OPERATIONS (CIOS)
G. Nandakumar & J. Padilla (2020)
A hybrid methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques is discussed in the context of Cyber-enabled Influence Operations (CIOs). Beginning with primary inputs from detailed qualitative analyses of political, economic, social, technological, and legal ground realities, our Game-Transformation-based Framework uses 2 × 2 games - with ordinal rankings of preferences as payoffs - to attain a macro-level perspective. Using the periodic table of 2 × 2 games, we show how payoff swaps, which represent shifts in ground realities, can change the nature of the game and therefore the resulting equilibrium. Our framework’s exploration of various permutations, that hypothetical changes in input might lead to, can be used by analysts and policymakers to reverse-engineer favorable scenarios. The framework is useful for scenario planning as it allows for both detailed micro-level analyses and strategic macro-level analyses.
THE INTEGRATED GAME TRANSFORMATION FRAMEWORK AND CYBERWAR: WHAT 2X2 GAMES TELL US ABOUT CYBERATTACKS
A. Fretz, J. Padilla, & E. Frydenlund (2021)
We apply a game theory framework to cyber war in the areas of Cyber Influence Operations (CIOs), Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs), and Tradi-tional Cyber Attacks (TCAs). For greater generalizability, we rely on a set of actor typologies based on posture rather than individual countries. Our findings suggest that cyberwar will remain problematic going forward, especially with respect to APTs and that great powers will be the most likely offenders. They will also be the most stubborn actors when it comes to diminishing cyberwar in general, even when the base game can be transformed into one that favors coop-eration over conflict.
SIMULATION FOR CYBERSECURITY: STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
H. Kavak, J. Padilla, D. Vernon-Bido, S. Diallo, R. Gore, & S. Shetty (2021)
In this article, we provide an introduction to simulation for cybersecurity and focus on three themes: (1) an overview of the cybersecurity domain; (2) a summary of notable simulation research efforts for cybersecurity; and (3) a proposed way forward on how simulations could broaden cybersecurity efforts. The overview of cybersecurity provides readers with a foundational perspective of cybersecurity in the light of targets, threats, and preventive measures. The simulation research section details the current role that simulation plays in cybersecurity, which mainly falls on representative environment building; test, evaluate, and explore; training and exercises; risk analysis and assessment; and humans in cybersecurity research. The proposed way forward section posits that the advancement of collecting and accessing sociotechnological data to inform models, the creation of new theoretical constructs, and the integration and improvement of behavioral models are needed to advance cybersecurity efforts.